Determination of an optimum extraction region for the recovery of bioactive compounds from olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) using green dynamic pressurized liquid extraction uri icon


  • Pressurized liquid extraction with water and ethanol was employed to obtain high antioxidant extracts from olive leaves (Olea europaea L.). The influence of solvent ratio (100-50% v/v water/ethanol), temperature (100-200 degrees C), and solvent flow rate (1-5 mL min(-1)) on the extraction process was investigated using a Box-Behnken experimental design. ANOVA was applied to determine the overall goodness of fit of the dependent variables (extraction yield, antioxidant capacity by DPPH, total flavonoids, total iridoid-glycoside, and total phenolic content) in second-order models. For the optimization, these models were used to find the optimal conditions using the Sequential Simplex optimization procedure combined with Derringer and Suich's desirability function to maximize antioxidant capacity, total iridoid-glycoside recovery, and total phenolic content. The optimal region conditions for extraction were determined at a solvent ratio of 53-65% v/v water/ethanol, the extraction temperature of 100-120 degrees C, and a 3-4 mL min(-1) solvent flow rate. Fifteen phenolic compounds were identified in the samples using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn, including two phenolic acids (hydroxytyrosol and hydroxytyrosol glucoside), four flavonols (apigenin-6,8-C-dihexoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, luteolin-O-hexoside, and derivatives), and nine iridoid-glycosides (verbascoside, oleuropein, and derivatives). Oleuropein and derivates were identified as the major phenolic compounds in the extract obtained at optimal conditions as a percentage of 89% of the extract composition.

publication date

  • September 2022