Optimization of Pinhão Extract Encapsulation by Solid Dispersion and Application to Cookies as a Bioactive Ingredient uri icon


  • Pinhão residues have a wide range of bioactive compounds and encapsulation can be one of the alternatives to increase their bioavailability. Thus, this work aimed to apply pinhão extract, pure and encapsulated by solid dispersion, in the formulation of cookies as a bioactive ingredient. For that, pinhão extract was encapsulated in different biopolymers (sodium caseinate, gelatin, and gum arabic) and with different shear mechanisms (sonication, Ultra-Turrax, and magnetic stirring). The best encapsulation procedure has been defined by a chemometric analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis), considering thermal properties (DSC) of particles and ( +)-catechin encapsulation efficiency (HPLC). The optimized conditions were gelatin as encapsulation agent and Ultra-Turrax as shear mechanism (70.1 ± 2.8 °C maximum endothermic peak temperature and 96.0 ± 2.3% ( +)-catechin encapsulation efficiency). The phenolic profile of the encapsulated extract showed the presence of ( +)-catechin (0.31 ± 0.01 (mg/gparticle), protocatechuic acid (0.29 ± 0.00 mg/gparticle), and ( −)-epicatechin (0.11 ± 0.00 mg/ gparticle). Both the pure and encapsulated extracts were incorporated into the cookie formulation, which was characterized in terms of centesimal composition, color parameters, texture, and sensory aspects. It was found that cookies with the pure and the encapsulated extract showed significant differences concerning the centesimal composition, products added with pinhão extract and encapsulated extract presented higher values when compared to the control, probably influenced by the mineral content of the pinhão. In addition, higher hardness values were detected for cookies formulated with the encapsulated extract, which possibly negatively affected the consumer’s sensory perception.
  • This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES)— Finance Code 001. Fernanda V. Leimann (process 039/2019) thanks to Fundação Araucária (CP 15/2017- Programa de Bolsas de Produtividade em Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico) and to CNPq (process number 421541/2018–0, Chamada Universal MCTIC/CNPq n.º 28/2018). The authors are also grateful to the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) for financial support through national funds FCT/MCTES to CIMO (UIDB/00690/2020); national funding by F.C.T. and P.I., through the institutional scientific employment program-contract for M.I.D and L.B. contracts. Also, to FEDERInterreg España-Portugal programme for financial support through the project TRANSCoLAB 0612_TRANS_CO_LAB_2_P.

publication date

  • May 2022