Using Wearables to Monitor Swimmers’ Propulsive Force to Get Real-Time Feedback and Understand Its Relationship to Swimming Velocity uri icon


  • Evidence on the role of propulsion compared to drag in swimming, based on experimental settings, is still lacking. However, higher levels of propulsion seem to lead to faster swimming veloci- ties. The aim of this study was to understand the variation in a set of kinematic and kinetic variables between two swimming sections and their relationship to swimming velocity. The sample consisted of 15 young adult recreational swimmers (8 males: 20.84 ± 2.03 years; 7 females: 20.13 ± 1.90 years). Maximum swimming velocity and a set of kinematic and kinetic variables were measured during two consecutive sections of the swimming pool. Differences between sections were measured and the determinants of swimming velocity were analyzed. Swimming velocity, propulsive force, and the other kinematic and kinetic variables did not change significantly (p < 0.05) between sections (only the intra-cyclic fluctuation of swimming velocity decreased significantly, p = 0.005). The modeling identified the propulsive force, stroke length, and active drag coefficient as the determinants of swimming velocity. Swimming velocity was determined by the interaction of kinematic and kinetic variables, specifically propulsive force and active drag coefficient
  • This research was funded by FCT—Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, grant number UIDB/DTP/04045/2020

publication date

  • January 2023